Ancient Egypt Comes to Life

Okay, time for some culture. As you all may have guessed, I am interested in many subjects besides law. One of those subjects is Ancient Egypt. I came across a story about Ancient Egypyt while I was perusing the news this morning and I got sucked in. The result is this article.

False confessions must wait another day.

Here is a link to a Fox News story titled, Ancient Egypt in Pictures.

Check out the 69 photos. Some of them have links to stories that you may find interesting.

There are some excellent photos and discussion of the discoveries near the pyramids at Giza about the workers who built them during the Fourth Dynasty (2575-2467 BC) in the Old Kingdom.

Yeah, I hate Fox Snooze, too, but the photos are cool.

Building the pyramids was a national effort.

Contrary to popular belief, slaves did not build the pyramids. Neither did ancient astronauts, by the way. They were built by workers who devoted 3 months of their time each year to the project. They were housed in worker’s quarters on site and fed meat, vegetables and bread prepared in large kitchens. They washed it down with copious amounts of beer. The owners of large estates supplied the food and beer.

Architects, engineers and supervisors lived year-round on site.

There also are photographs of the step-pyramid in the vast underground funerary complex at Saqqara. The legendary Imhotep, who is regarded as the father of architecture, engineering and medicine, designed and built that complex, including the step-pyramid, during the reign of Third Dynasty pharaoh Djoser.

Imhotep (2650-2600 BC) was basically what we would call the Chancellor or Prime Minister of Egypt during Pharaoh Djoser’s reign. In addition to his impressive accomplishments designing massive buildings, constructing them with stone using copper tools and writing medicinal texts without any references to the spirit world or magical spells, he was the High Priest of Ra (the Sun God) at Heliopolis, the City of the Sun.

His name says a lot about him. Imhotep means: He who comes in Peace.

For more information on Imhotep, go here.

There are also photographs of statuary, sarcophagi, mummies and artwork during the reign of Akhenaten, the so-called heretic pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty during the New Kingdom. Akhenaten (AKA: Amunhotep IV) is credited as the father of monotheism and he was the biological father of King Tut, as confirmed by DNA testing. There is a striking photograph of his mother’s mummy, Queen Tiye, whose beautiful elegance and power still radiates.

To give you some idea of how long Egypt’s ancient culture lasted, Akhenaten ruled from 1351-1334 BC, or about 1300 years after Imhotep lived and Imhotep lived about 500 years after Narmer unified Upper (southern) Egypt and Lower (northern Nile Delta region) Egypt. Ramses II (1303-1213 BC), probably the most famous pharaoh of ancient Egypt and regarded by many as the pharaoh of the Exodus (but not by me) had not even been born yet.

Her history and culture continues to influence us today.

Make sure you also take a look at this extraordinary 3-foot tall plaster sarcophagus of a girl during the period of Roman rule. Here is a close-up photograph of her face.

98 Responses to Ancient Egypt Comes to Life

  1. Omkar Bhide says:

    Pyramids are one of the mysterious chapters of the Worlds history….everybody is eager to know about each n every single info of this mystery……….

  2. colin black says:

    mountainmanpat says:

    January 6, 2013 at 12:19 pm

    I would love to read the CODE of FOGEN…….

    OR?….the LAW according to FOGEN

    That could be a novel idea for John Irving

    The World Acording to Garp.

    The World Acording to Fogen.

  3. 2. Thou shalt bear false witness to save thine own ass.

  4. Malisha says:

    Something always interested me not from Egyptian or Hittite law but from the Code of Hammurabi, thus:

    If a man has determined to divorce a concubine who has borne him children, or a votary who has granted him children, he shall return to that woman her marriage-portion, and shall give her the usufruct of field, garden, and goods, to bring up her children. After her children have grown up, out of whatever is given to her children, they shall give her one son’s share, and the husband of her choice shall marry her.

    That is, the “Husband of HER CHOICE” shall marry her.

    Fascinating. Once the guy decides to divorce her, SHE gets to choose whomever SHE wants to marry! Wow. That would seem the way to go, wouldn’t it? The only way to get CHOICE — not that we always use it with great wisdom, of course…

    But I suppose it’s better than getting impaled or drowned (some of the other consequences of sex or divorce).

    I’d like to write “The CODE of FOGEN” — think I’ll set my mind to it tonight.

  5. plus i went looking to see what hittite women looked like LOL but of course only pictures carved in stones.. duhhhhhhhhhhh! as if someone snaped a pic and posted it online!!LOL

  6. i know this is long but i thought it was interesting. Plus it’s also about law!

    Hittite Women as Reflected in the Laws of Marriage, Adultery and Rape

    The Hittite law codes offer more protection for a woman than, if I’m remembering correctly, Victorian England, in the sense that a Hittite woman could both initiate a divorce and keep her inheritance and half her husband’s estate if she divorced. On the other hand, the expressions used in Hittite for marriage—there is no one abstract word for “to marry”—reflect the control men exercised over women, “to take a wife” “to take as his own wife” “to make her your wife.” (Imparati, 572) A woman is never described as “taking a husband.” The laws of adultery and rape present a similarly mixed bag.

    Generally, a woman’s marriage was arranged by her parents. The woman’s own agreement to the marriage does not seem to have been required. (Imparati, 572-573) Early on in a girl’s life she might be promised to a particular boy/man. From this stage of “promise,” she was “bound” in the second stage of marriage by the first of two financial transactions. Her groom’s family paid a substantial sum (more or less, depending on the family’s wealth) in the form of a kušata or “bride price”. Then to seal the marriage contract, a woman brought to the deal an iwaru, which literally means “gift” and scholars translate as “dowry.” In this practice the Hittites acted as did other Near Eastern cultures. Unfortunately, no marriage contracts have surfaced yet in Hittite archaeology so we do not know exactly what kinds of arrangements they specified, although we know they must have existed and would had various reciprocal obligations between spouses and have been validated by witnesses and a seal. (Imparati, 573)

    A woman usually went to live in her husband’s house, although Hittite law provides for a kind of adoption of the husband into the wife’s family when his family was too poor to provide a kušata. Since the children of a free man were free, a wealthy slave (yes they did exist a great deal in the ancient world) could thus acquire freedom for his grandchildren through such an adoption/marriage.

    Monogamy appears to have been far and away the most common state of marriage. The only regularly polygamous marriages we hear about are in the case of the Hittite king. His first wife had a special status with the others as a species of concubine. Since the Hittite king required prodigious numbers of offspring, both male and female, to govern and militarily protect the empire, as well as to form alliances with other kingdoms, his polygamous marriage status appears to have been a special case for the most part. For those of you who remember that in the Iliad, Priam, the King of Troy, had fifty sons and fifty daughters, this will sound vaguely familiar. In the Iliad, Priam also seems to have only one queen, Hecuba, and she certainly didn’t give birth to one hundred children, so this kind of acceptance of concubine’s children as members of the royal family seems to be reflected in the epic tradition.

    Hittites adopted a “liberal and pragmatic approach to the institution of marriage” (Bryce, 119). “Divorce was apparently not uncommon, and divorce proceedings could as easily be initiated by a woman as by a man” (Bryce, 119). “It seems that in a divorce between persons of equal status, the couple’s assets were generally divided equally and all the children but one remained with the mother; if the wife was of lesser social status [slave/free], the husband retained the custody of all but one of the couple’s children” (Collins, 24). In addition to the equitable division of assets, the wife had another sizable financial advantage in the case of divorce: She retained both the kušata and the iwaru. Her dowry represented her share of her father’s estate and remained her property throughout her married life and divorce. While married, her husband acted as custodian of the dowry, but it only became his if she died before him, and in this case, it appears it passed to the children, as in Babylonian law. (Bryce, 130)

    There were also provisions that a widow be adequately provided for after her husband’s death. Among other things, she had the legal right to disinherit her sons if they failed to take care of her. (Bryce, 132)

    There are two key law codes to consider regarding rape and adultery, which in the Hittite mind, appear to be closely tied ideas. Here are the relevant codes:

    Clause 197 “The Laws”
    If a man seizes a woman in the mountains (and rapes her), the man is guilty and shall die, but if he seizes her in her house, the woman is guilty and shall die. If the woman’s husband catches them (in the act) and kills them, he has committed no offence.

    Clause 198 “The Laws”
    If he (the husband) brings them to the palace gate [the royal court] and says: “My wife shall not die,” he can spare his wife’s life, but must also spare the lover. Then he may veil her [his wife]. But if he says, “Both of you shall die”, and they “roll the wheel”. The king may have them both killed or he may spare them.
    (Hughes, 190)

    In Clause 197, if the sexual encounter occurs in an isolated place where the woman could not call out for help, it is assumed that it is rape and the man is guilty and the penalty is death (Imparati, 574). If, on the other hand, the sexual encounter occurs in the woman’s house (it is probably good not to take these exemplar places too literally), then the law assumes she was committing adultery, not being raped, and for that, she pays with her life.

    The husband, if he catches a man with his wife, is justified under Hittite law in killing them, but only in the heat of the moment.

    Clause 198 indicates that if he stops to think about it, he must bring the two before the king for the court’s decision. Interestingly, he cannot request that only one of the adulterers be killed. It’s an all or nothing decision. The king can override the angry husband’s decision and spare both.

    As I said, Hittite law is a mixed bag as far as women’s rights. Certainly rapists paid a high penalty for their crime, but we cringe at the idea of defining rape by location. In addition, a married man could have sex with another woman without it being counted as adultery as long as the woman was not married. That is, only a woman was bound in marriage to the one sexual partner. Clearly the Hittites operated under a “double standard” like so many other cultures through time.

    http://www.judithstarkston.com/articles/hittite-women-as-reflected-in-the-laws-of-marriage-adultery-and-rape/

    • aussie says:

      This location distinction exists in other legal systems of the Near/Middle East. The idea is that in an isolated place, screaming for help is not going to be successful. In her own house (or in town, in some versions) the woman should be able to scream for help AND BE HEARD. Bear in mind “own house” was not a nuclear-family-husband-and-kids-away-all-day she’s all alone situation. Own house had servants and slaves and generations of other family in them. And was as often as not built with an adjoining wall to the place next door.

      Generally the less choice a woman has in who she marries, the less the culture accepts the concept of rape. This is because the woman has no say in who she has sex with in any case, having to marry who the parents arranged. So there’s no concept of her HAVING a say.

      In extreme cases ANY intercourse with other than the husband just counts as adultery, and rape is non-existent. There is no offence against the woman. The offence is against the man, something for his exclusive use being sullied by another. After WW2 Red Cross picked up more than 10,000 women in Tibet wandering homeless, kicked out of home for adultery after being raped by invading soldiers. In Pakistan today there are jails for raped women who couldn’t produce the necessary number of witnesses to prove it. In some cultures, the rapist marrying the victim makes it “alright”; the issue is not her consent, which she has no right to in any case, but her having had intercourse with someone other than her husband.

      • cielo62 says:

        Aussie- thank you! Your post is way more informative than mine. It is beyond disgusting that parts of the world STILL treat women like sexual property. A recent case of a Pakistani young lady being forced to marry her rapist resulted in her suicide. I would imagine female suicide is very prevalent in the near East but we would never hear about it.

        Sent from my iPod

    • cielo62 says:

      Very interesting. I think that “adultery by location ” was because their households were very different than ours. There were many open spaces, many people working in the home, and usually there are people within shouting distance at all times. No shouts means no danger. At least, that is how I interpret it.

      Sent from my iPod

  7. I think you may be referring to the First Intermediate Period that ensued when Pharaoh Pepi II died at the age of 100 after ruling for 94 years. He was the last pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty because he outlived all of his heirs and had no successor.

    The power of the nobility had increased during his later years as the central authority of the pharaoh began to break down and the leaders of various nomes (districts) started competing with each other seeking ever greater power and influence.

    Everything fell apart and many people in Egypt suffered terribly for about 100 years until Mentuhotep II, pharaoh of the 11th Dynasty situated in Thebes, defeated the pharaoh of the Tenth Dynasty, situated in Heracleapolis, and reunified Egypt under his rule. This event reestablished the authority of the central government in Thebes and marks the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in 2150 BC.

    For more information on the First Intermediate period, go here.

  8. colin black says:

    Facinating as Ancient Eygypt is an the differnt Pharos an there courts intrige
    For a long period Eygypt was split into two differnt those closely alligned Kingdoms with a Pharo in the North an a Pharo in the Southern half .
    Ive very rarely read any fiction on Ancient Eygypt mostly text books

    However I am a fan of Norman Mailer an a few years ago he wrote an novel called Ancient Evenings.
    Its Fiction though interweaveing real charecters from history I recomend it for anyone who wants to try an gain a mind set off the actaull evryday thoughts of the people.
    Its also extreamly accurate with it potraials of the religions an beleifs.
    The chapters on the book of the dead .And an actuall envisioned journey through the various stages of there after life were magical reading

    ps If your interested in crime an punishment re the rights an wrongs surounding the death penalty I recomend another Norman Mailer book non fiction
    The Executioners Song.
    True Story about the life an death of Gary Gillmore.

    • yes colin, think i’ll check into that book Ancient Evenings, it sounds like something i’d like.
      a few years ago i read a book -fiction w. some true historical references, called The Memoirs of Cleopatra, by Margeret George.
      she also wrote one on Mary, Queen of Scotland. but i don’t remember much about Mary 😦

      i still love reading about Saudi Princess’ and their royal *stuff*.
      i used to know some members of the Saudi royal family, my boyfriend worked with them. by the end, i believed they might have bought and paid for his life because *they* decided we could not keep dating, much less get married.
      still bitter! LOLOLO

  9. You all have thoughtful comments says:

    I have enjoyed watching every documentary that Zahi Hawass, head of Egyptian Antiquities, has created for TV.
    Thanks for this update, Professor!

    • I got real tired of Zahi Hawass sticking himself in the middle of everything, although his passion for Ancient Egypt and determination to preserve it and recover lost artifacts were good things.

      • cielo62 says:

        Last I heard, he was “retired” by his political superiors. He ticked off plenty of people. Still I admired his passion.

        Sent from my iPod

      • You all have thoughtful comments says:

        The parts of his documentary where is was so, so hard on that female archeology intern really bothered me + that time he had the interns walking back “home” in the hot desert sun when their car broke down was awful. Remember how they had to be rescued by the family traveling on camels?
        .
        However, he has made a huge contribution to Egyptian archeology!

      • You all have thoughtful comments says:

        On a lighter note, I have always thought that the graves of archeologists should have signs that read, “Archeologist….may be dug up for study.”

      • You all have thoughtful comments says:

        The reason I write this is that I really do not think people’s graves should be disturbed.

  10. Being a philatelist (online store, member of several philatelic org’s) I have a great fondness for history….Even tho they didn’t have stamps 4500 yrs ago…..there are many issues from many nations depicting ancient Egyptian artifacts.

    One could build a collection solely based on that topic……

    • You all have thoughtful comments says:

      What no ancient papyrus stamps with sticky sap on their backs, mountainmanpat?

      • Stamps as we know them today didn’t begin until 1847…..
        Prior to that the person receiving the letter paid the postage !!!!!
        Glad it’s not that way now…I’d go broke paying for all the junk mail I get 😦

      • Cercando Luce says:

        Wait, I read that the president of the USA had franking privileges as early as George Washington.

  11. William Walton says:

    With Amoco, have been to Egypt. As with that which is going on with the GZ & TM situation, one should look at accepting the facts involved in each situation. It is my belief that GZ shot TM to accomplish his own goal. When in Egypt, we were always accused of stealing Egypts resourses. I once explained to an Egyptian petroleum engineer that had Amoco not drilled the first oil well in the Gulf of Suez, he would still be riding his camel in the Egyptian desert. This Egyptian kept trying to perform operations in his own way negating what I had proposed to the extent that Amoco finaly told him if he did not do as he was told, he would be terminated and Amoco would seek to be reimbursed the funds they spent allowing hin to gain the degree of Petroleim Engineer. With the TM & GZ case, I think people need to rely on totally studying the facts and then coming to a conclusion based on subtantiated data. By so doing, I think whether one is on the Jury or just an observer, all will come to the conclusion that TM had his civil rights violated and GZ is guilty.

    • thanks for that story. and you sure told that Egyptian guy what time it is!! LOL as for the oil, i completely agree.

      but we have been going over the facts in Trayvon’s case and we’ve theorized a myriad of end goals gz could’ve had.
      *gz wanted to be a big man.
      *gz wanted to be a big man but also wanted to be declared
      (Dis)Honorary Sheriff of the neighborhood and the paycheck to go with
      *gz simply decided to go hunting humans in the suburbs.

      all kinds of things. so what do you think is his goal?

    • leander22 says:

      William, he sounds not too well informed. I think the European imperialists even us late imperialists, the Germans, seem more to blame in this field. The bust of Akhenaten’s wife in Berlin, Nefertiti, is surrounded by a long debate as far as I remember. Egypt, which in the field of antiquities today always means Zahi Hawass, feels she wasn’t brought out of the country legally. And I am sure that e.g. the British, Russians or French have similar cases.

      I am no expert, but on first thought the Americans wouldn’t be the first on my mind concerning this type of real or alleged “cultural theft”. But my attention in the US was more on modern art, admittedly. …

      From my very German perspective I found an interesting connection between our our worst history and art during my visits to diverse museums on the Berlin Museum Island in former East Berlin in the Bode Museum there:

      This one-room exhibition highlights Strzygowski’s significant role in defining the course for the Museum für Byzantine Art presents his difficult personality from a biographical perspective. Whilst he was a pioneer in many areas of Byzantine art history, he became increasingly absorbed in ethnic and racial notions in his later years. On exhibit will be biographical documents, contemporary sources on his work for the Berlin Museums and objects that were acquired on account of his efforts.

      Imperialism, representational art purchases, and rising bigotry seem to have gone hand in hand occasionally. Although the Museum’s director Bode fell out with the guy when he entered this phase.

      All in all it’s a complex matter. Some of the highlights in Berlin like the Greek Bergamon Altar wouldn’t have survived it seems. People in Greek had already started to burn the marble status to produce lime as building materials. That’s one of my favorites. Both the Bergamon Altar and another favorite of mine the Babylonian Ishtar Gate seems to have been legitimate excavations and purchases. Thus considering my country only the Nefertiti bust comes to mind. (to leave out the history under the Nazis which provides us with it’s own set of stolen art, but not necessarily antique art.)

      Pleased to see someone else on the side of Trayvon. GZ’s story simply makes no sense. A “thug suspect” that turns into “a killer” in a couple of minutes. That’s really hard to believe.

      • leander22 says:

        Oops, I hope there is not more, just caught my attention:

        People in Greek had already started to burn the marble statues to produce lime as building materials

        statues statuaries not status, one little letter makes it unfortunately a completely different word.

        Good night folks.

  12. you know those pictures were unreal it really is a look into the very far past.

    i can’t get over how those people/mummies still look so normal. i can see their face. i can see what they looked like. did you see the grandmother’s hair??? how does that last 3000 years!!???
    and the colors of the paints they used.. but what is so amazing to me is thinking about those who painted and why they choose each color and MY GOD HOW DID THAT LAST SO LONG???!!

    i think about them wanting all their personal possessions with them for the after life. and they must be disappointed that it all didn’t work out like they thought. but maybe along with their other secrets, like the buildings and stuff, maybe there’s more there than we could ever imagine!

    but they are mysterious. so sophisticated. i would love to read something they wrote, like someones diary…

    and does anyone know why the King (forgot his name) had that body? was there a story about him having a hormone problem.. but did that become a desired look among men? like did other guys want to look like that too?
    just wondering..

    • Akhenaten not only started a new religion that was monotheistic and likely influenced the beginning and subsequent development of the Jewish religion, he build a new palace and capitol city, Akhetaten (now called Amarna) far away from Thebes forcing the court to move there. He also broke with the past insisting that artists portray the royal family as ordinary people doing ordinary things, like playing with their kids. Yes, he and his queen Nefertiti, considered by many to have been the most beautiful woman in the ancient world, had 6 daughters. He insisted that he wanted to be seen as he saw himself — with physical flaws and female features in part because he saw himself as a union of the male and female, so we do not know how closely he resembled his portraits and statues, if at all. It’s certainly unlikely that his head was as elongated as he is portrayed.

      Akhenaten was a poet and a dreamer. Basically, he could not be bothered to govern Egypt and he left governing to his mother, Queen Tiye, and then to his wife, Nefertiti. Eventually, under pressure to produce a male heir, he mated with his sister. The result was Tutankhamen or King Tut. The lineage has been verified by DNA testing.

      I do not believe the Ancient Egyptians literally believed in an afterlife as a mummy. They thought symbolically, not literally, and regarded themselves as both physical and spiritual beings.

      They regarded the physical and spirit worlds as coexisting and inseparable.

      Their religion, as you might expect, is symbolic, rich and deep. They thought holistically believing that the whole was greater than the sum of its constituent parts.

      Ritual and ceremony were very important.

      So was partying.

      They would be baffled by fundamentalists who insist on literal interpretations of the Bible.

      The Christian resurrection story of Christ is basically a reworking of the resurrection story of Osiris. Christ is Osiris.

      The Ancient Egyptians believed he transcended death at the hand of his brother, Set, to become a god who lives forever as a star in the constellation of Orion.

      Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, is a retelling of that story with Hamlet as Horus avenging his father’s death by the hand of Set, his uncle.

      I could go on and on, but that’s enough for now.

      • cielo62 says:

        In addition, Druid and other pagan religions ALSO had a resurrecting god. It’s not an original idea to one part of the world. Christians are shocked to find the fundamental story is found world wide.

        Sent from my iPod

        • The resurrection story is older than dirt.

          • cielo62 says:

            I have a Minor in Comparative Religion. My take was the amazing similarities between world religions. I had heard that many people who study Comparative Religion become atheists. But there are many unmistakable overlaps. It gives me hope.

            Sent from my iPod

          • Lonnie Starr says:

            I forget where, but somewhere on the net I was reading about religion in antiquity. At one time, anyone who wanted to preach for their daily bread could and would do so, since it was a whole lot easier than working for a living back then. So, you had dozens of independent preachers, each preaching their own, personal brand of religion, superstition really. They purported to know what was going to happen after death, some preached about an afterlife and some preached about the here and now.

            Some bright fellow got the idea of having a single “unified” religion that would be “one size fits all”. The dream, as it were, was that no matter where you went in the empire, you would have a religion that was “universal”, the same thousands of miles away, as it was here.
            That proved to be a very powerful idea. Since most travelers were tradesmen or merchants, and very powerful people with much social “juice”, the new paradigm gained popularity quickly. Who wouldn’t want to appear upper class by assuming this new religion?

            Soon the priests were looking at customs and ceremonies and symbols, being used by other groups around the world. They took them, modified them a bit and made them their own. The process still goes on today.

          • cielo62 says:

            Lonnie- yes, the process is ongoing. The Catholic Church made “saints” of many pagan gods and goddesses just to “ease” in new converts. Holy sites in antiquity were “christianized” into new holy sites. Like I said before, modern Christians don’t know their own history and are shocked when “pagan roots” are revealed.

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            Like I said before, modern Christians don’t know their own history and are shocked when “pagan roots” are revealed.

            You mean like Dec. 25th? As I said previously, I’ve been called a heretic for knowing history. Since around the age of 10, I started asking what the heck does a pine tree have to do with Jesus Christ? Then since around the age of 14, I realized that Jesus could not have been a Capricorn.

          • cielo62 says:

            More like a Pisces.

            Sent from my iPod

          • Ya know if jebus fed the multitudes……..that would make him a socialist…..just sayin’……

            Patrick….a happy atheist

          • cielo62 says:

            Mountainmanpat- Jesus was indeed a socialist, maybe even a communist since they held everything in common. He was also an egalitarian. Yep, somehow Jesus is everything modern day Baptists hate!

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            Yep, somehow Jesus is everything modern day Baptists hate!

            LOL! That would be mainly Southern Baptists, the only ones who called me a heretic. The other factions within that denomination just call me a liberal. 🙂

          • cielo62 says:

            Xena/ don’t think being called a liberal is any better than being called a heretic! In Houston being a “liberal” is a huge insult. Not that I care. I am A Proud Liberal.

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            Xena/ don’t think being called a liberal is any better than being called a heretic!

            Yeah. Like “thug” is the new term for the N-word.

            In Houston being a “liberal” is a huge insult. Not that I care. I am A Proud Liberal.

            I’m so far left that you can’t wedge anything between me and left.

          • Sad to say…..Baptist (the southern variety) was the religion of my upbringing 😦

          • Lonnie Starr says:

            Hmmm… I don’t see what there is to be so happy about. Consider, organizations based on superstitious beliefs enjoy tax breaks, while an organization based on the belief system of atheism would not. So, you can’t organize and build universities and hospitals, shelter business and real estate holdings and such, the way that people who rally around the unbelievable can.

          • cielo62 says:

            People who believe the unbelievable DO believe in money! LOL!

            Sent from my iPod

          • Insanity is believing ones own delusions…

            Religion is believing someone else’s delusions

          • Xena says:

            More like a Pisces.

            That is what I thought too, but after doing some research, it appears that Jesus was a Virgo. That coincides with the Feast of Tabernacles and also for portions of the Bible that speak about a “half time” that points to when he was crucified at Passover.

            The Dec. 25th date actually came from sun worshipers like,with other Christmas symbols, the Roman Catholic church incorporated and transformed into Christian worship and holidays. Now, it’s nothing more than an expensive culture.

          • cielo62 says:

            Saturnalia. Awesome holiday!

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            Saturnalia. Awesome holiday!

            See, cielo, you know that. I couldn’t remember the name. Through the years, I’ve forgotten the roots of many of the symbols for Christmas and Easter because there came a time when I decided I no longer needed to defend myself against being called a heretic.

          • cielo62 says:

            Xena- faith is a slippery thing to define. I consider myself a person of faith , but no longer a Christian. There is no one but you and your God to decide the strength of your faith. Heretics are often more clear headed than blind followers.

            I am proud to have “met” you here online, even if we don’t agree on everything. But we ARE united in our mission. Justice for Trayvon.

            Sent from my iPod

          • Ever consider that Easter occurs at the same time as pagan fertility rituals?

            Rebirth….fertility…….

          • Xena says:

            Ever consider that Easter occurs at the same time as pagan fertility rituals?

            It actually occurs during Passover, but the chickens, rabbits, Easter bunny and eggs are from a people who worshiped a goddess of fertility.

          • cielo62 says:

            Xena- sorry to correct you (for a once-in-a-lifetime event) but Easter is not related to Passover in setting the calendar. Easter is set for the 1st Sunday AFTER the 1st full moon AFTER the spring equinox. Passover is set on a totally separate Jewish lunar calendar. They overlap by numerical chance every 19 years IIRC.

            Anyway, I contemplated conversion to Judaism. I learned some really interesting things with the rabbis I studied with.

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            @cielo62.

            Xena- sorry to correct you (for a once-in-a-lifetime event) but Easter is not related to Passover in setting the calendar. Easter is set for the 1st Sunday AFTER the 1st full moon AFTER the spring equinox. Passover is set on a totally separate Jewish lunar calendar. They overlap by numerical chance every 19 years IIRC. </blockquote.

            Don't be sorry. My bad. Since 1983 we have Christian gatherings in recognition of the spiritual fulfillment of the Feasts, so I was mistaken about Easter always coinciding with Passover.

          • cielo62 says:

            I should have said western Christianity. There are other orthodox traditions which set their calendars differently.

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            I should have said western Christianity. There are other orthodox traditions which set their calendars differently.

            I think Greek Orthodox celebrates on a different day.

          • cielo62 says:

            And bunnies! Lots of bunnies! 🙂

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            @cielo62. Same here. Not only am I happy to have met you, but I like embedding cat videos for you too. 🙂

          • cielo62 says:

            Xena- and isn’t that what friends do? >^..^<

            Sent from my iPod

          • Xena says:

            Xena- and isn’t that what friends do? >^..^<

            I believe so. Keeping with the theme of this post, what about an Egyptian cat. Check out the long whiskers.

          • cielo62 says:

            Thanks! Beautiful cats! I have just moggies. That is, cat mutts.

            Sent from my iPod

          • I prefer not to be labeled as a liberal, conservative, or anything other than a free thinker…

            To your ” But we ARE united in our mission. Justice for Trayvon.”

            Count me in that group.

          • Lonnie Starr says:

            Oh, I think you mean the pagan celebration of the winter/Vernal Equinox/Solstice? Or Saturnalia/All Souls/All Saints/Halloween? Seems that supplanting pagan holidays has been a work of art in progress. Mardi Gras and Carnivals have been driving the elders nuts.

          • Lonnie Starr says:

            I know they mean well, but historically, religion is the greatest source of death and killing on earth.

          • I TOTALLY agree Lonnie..

            An example I like to use is the US Civil war……same “god” on both sides….both using the same holy book & singing many of the same hymns….And BOTH believing “god” would lead them to victory!!!!

            Maybe one side wasn’t holding their mouths quite right when they prayed, which gave the other side the advantage?

            The end result? 600,000 dead……

            Any “god” I could believe in would have been looking down in disgust at what they had created.

          • Lonnie Starr says:

            History is littered with examples where, believers in one set of ideas, are interested in sending those, who believe in other ideas, into the great beyond, for the purposes of redemption. When, were their visions of afterlife so true, they themselves should be the ones, seeking to “shuffle off this mortal coil”, post haste.

            If “out out brief candle” means anything at all, it should inspire that they not judge, lest they be judged, eh? But no!

          • cielo62 says:

            Lonnie- and why do you think Constantine chose to unify his kingdom under Christianity? Very politically astute. Maybe he hoped by picking a pacifist religion, life would be more peaceful. Unfortunately, human nature abhors too much peace.

            Sent from my iPod

      • Xena says:

        @cielo62.

        Christians are shocked to find the fundamental story is found world wide.

        Not this Christian. (Although I’ve been called a heretic. LOL) I believe that the source of life, no matter what people have called or do call him, gave the resurrection prophecy and hope to all mankind. If Christians truly believe the Bible that God is one Spirit, who created Adam and all men derived from him, then it should be logically understood that the knowledge of that one spirit in Adam passed to all mankind.

        The 3 wise men in the Christmas story had knowledge of Christ by their searching and knowledge of the stars for the times. Yet, many people who put stars on the top of their Christmas trees quickly denounce astronomy and astrology.

      • You all have thoughtful comments says:

        Nice posting all of you.

  13. Jun says:

    I am still curious how they did it and if the Egyptians had some form of technology, where is it?

    I know their is the Alien theory but I feel that humans can be really clever and come up with ideas so it is moreso an entertaining theory

  14. colin black says:

    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    January 5, 2013 at 3:46 pm

    I love History full stop .
    But have always loved Ancient Eygyptian History an devour any source to learn more
    Ive read some facinating tales written by cohorts of Napolean whom were abandonded by the wee Fella in Eygypt for years.
    Along with a rather large Army many whom never made it home .
    Some died but the majority hoooked up with Natiive Women settled an raised Familys
    i think some went on to form what eventually became the beginning off the French Forign Legion

    Pyramids aside remarkabel feats off engineering crafmanship building presission.
    That they are.

    To me the most jaw dropping thing they did and to my knowlage has never been attempted by any other civilisation let alone surpassed.

    Was the Relocation of there Capital City lock stock an barrell.
    Brick by brick monuments homes palaces the entire infra structure was moved .

    And not just down the road but I I R C over a hundred miles.
    The Nile had become silted up an the delta where the original Capital was built became tottaly cut of from the river that once ran through it.
    So they upped sticks an moved an entire City flipping auwsome

  15. colin black says:

    I love History full stop .
    But have always loved Ancient Eygyptian History an devour any source to learn more
    Ive read some facinating tales written by cohorts of Napolean whom were abandonded by the wee Fella in Eygypt for years.
    Along with a rather large Army many whom never made it home .
    Some died but the majority hoooked up with Natiive Women settled an raised Familys
    i think some went on to form what eventually became the beginning off the French Forign Legion

    Pyramids aside remarkabel feats off engineering crafmanship building presission.
    That they are.

    To me the most jaw dropping thing they did and to my knowlage has never been attempted by any other civilisation let alone surpassed.

    Was the Relocation of there Capital City lock stock an barrell.
    Brick by brick monuments homes palaces the entire infra structure was moved .

    And not just down the road but I I R C over a hundred miles.
    The Nile had become silted up an the delta where the original Capital was built became tottaly cut of from the river that once ran through it.
    So they upped sticks an moved an entire City flipping auwsome .

  16. doremus35 says:

    Tut, tut, interesting but enough of this skirmishing around the true heart of the matter! And what may that be you might ask, with your eyes raised to the horizon expecting Ra to come bounding into the day on a Harley? Well, the women my good man. Indeed, while getting the Pharaoh’s rocks off during the day was one thing, after a long day’s work what they really wanted to do was get their rocks off, if you fathom my drift.

    So, not wanting to keep you perched precariously with baited breath on the edge of your obelisk any longer than would be polite, but, prepare yourself, Egyptian woman of Khufu’s time were dogs! I don’t mean pedigree pooches, but a motley collection known in the ancient world to warp corneas! Dogs: Simply dogs. Check out the hieroglyphs. Do you see any buxom beauties, even in flat relief? Of course not and there is a good reason.

    Hittite woman were the hotties of the ancient world. Talking about an eye full, well these comely lasses could charm the scales off a snake, make a sight challenged man see again, and raise to Olympic heights anything below the waist that appeared for all practical purposes to have given up the ghost.

    So there you have it my legal encyclopedia: Egyptian woman: dogs.

    Hittite woman: the ultimate Platonic ‘Theory of Forms’ representation of female perfection to which all other double Xs are but a distorted, faded reflection.

    *This information was found along with glorious, color photographs on pages 1-12 in the ‘Mesopotamian Geographic’. Volume 1, August edition 1650 B.C.E. featuring pithy aphorisms by Hattusili I (1650-1620) about the proper methodology of skinning captives alive.

    • Hi Stan,

      I’ll keep that in mind the next time I go time jumping.

      • doremus35 says:

        Economy of style is one thing; brevity of wit is to be applauded; but, and that’s one hell of a big but, I give you gorgeous Hittite woman on a platter, and I get back for my trouble,

        “I’ll keep that in mind the next time I go time jumping.”

        Oh well, the next time I go on a daily quest to find the miraculous and absurd in daily life, I will think of your anointed ’12’ (the Babylonians would be pleased) words (including a contraction), and know what was on the third tablet that Moses dropped!

        Namaste with reservations (hopefully for Paris)

      • Two sides to a story says:

        : }

    • doremus35 says:

      During the course of a Netflix documentary titled “How Beer Saved the World’ it was revealed that considering those who worked on the Pyramids were give daily chits to obtain food, their foods in order of preference were beer, bread, and onions.

      So, an analysis was conducted to determine the cost in gallons of beer to build one Khufu model Thebes Deluxe pyramid with black and white checkerboard casing stones. And the result, rounded to the nearest hundred thousand gallons was:

      2.3 million gallons (this is for real).

      So the next time you just happen to have sitting idly around on any day that ends in the letter ‘y’ 2.3 million gallons of beer for which you have no immediate plans, you too could be the proud owner of a knock off of Khufu’s stairway to the gods.

      • I’ll bet it wasn’t lite beer, which I happen to loathe with a passion.

        I gave up drinking alcohol two years ago, so I’m two years sober. Didn’t have to, just wanted to for the helluva it, and to lose weight. Now, I’ve lost over 40 pounds.

        But, I’d seriously consider tasting that old brew.

        If only we had the recipe!

        Reminds me of the Woody Allen film, What’s up Tiger Lilly, where he dubbed a Japanese gangster movie and made it about stealing a recipe for fruitcake.

      • Cercando Luce says:

        Gentlemen, my Dad’s joke:

        “Mike, me best friend, I’m leaving this world but soon! and I have a last request to make of you, dear friend…”

        “What is it, Fitz? What.. I’ll do anything for ye, anything! (sobs) Anything!”

        “Thank you, my dear Mike. (sighs) I have on my shelf a bottle of the finest whisky ever made, handed down to me from my great-grandfather, to celebrate the wedding I never had. Please, for me, when I die, would you pour it over my fresh grave?”

        Mike, in tears: “Of course I’ll do that for ye, old friend, of course! It’s the very least… (sobs)…but please, could I run it through me kidneys, just once?”

  17. Two sides to a story says:

    It’s an extraordinary period of history, one which I feel no particular connection to, but love to read about nonetheless.

    A friend sent me an interesting e-mail -Professor, if this ET mummy is verifiable, what a hot find!

    http://2012indyinfo.com/2013/01/04/extraterrestrial-mummy-found-in-egypt-riseearth/

    • I seriously doubt that story is true, given all of the anonymity attached to it.

      There is a surprising amount of reluctance to believe that the Ancient Egyptians were capable of making the discoveries they made or constructing the buildings and monuments they constructed. Yet, the roots of their culture and development can be traced back more than a thousand years during the predynastic period before Narmer unified the Upper and Lower Kingdoms in the 31st century BC.

      They had the same intelligence we have.

      • Two sides to a story says:

        This is quite true – the reluctance to believe the Egyptians could accomplish what they did, and the anonymity you mention.

        The ticket would be to contact everyone mentioned in the story to confirm.

        And there’s the other side of the story – the current anthropological / archaeological paradigm is slow to embrace new elements and the mainstream media is also reluctant to report about anything other-worldly. And so academics with new information are sometimes up against a wall until everything is published and peer-reviewed. If this story were true, you might expect all that to be done by now.

      • Lonnie Starr says:

        I was given to observer the period from the technological view at the 5,000 year mark bc. Since metal would be the ideal material for stone work, I took a quick look for the metals discovered by then. Turns out it’s copper. Hardly a wonder, given that it’s found in it’s native state, nothing to do but simply scoop it up and hammer it. That is sufficient to make beads. To make anything more useful from copper, it has to be heated, to “heal” the cracks that form in it when it’s beaten into a shape.

        So, serious stone work, probably won’t begin until the bronze age.
        Or at least until they can actually melt copper to make carving tools.

        The mathematics are rudimentary. They can count forwards (a form of additions) and obviously backwards (a form of subtraction). Not being an Egyptologist myself, I have to rely on those who are. So I ask if anyone sees any signs of multiplication or division around 5,000 BC? It would be pretty darned difficult to do higher math, not having a decimal type system and that’s got to have a drag on technology. But, I still can’t imagine them not having devised some kind of work around, to mimic these functions in some limited fashion. After all, builders and sculptors need to be able to measure. My guess is marks on some durable substance served as their standard guide. If so, it would be kept is some sacred place for safe keeping.

        Multiplication would, most likely, be achieved by the same method that computers use today, repetitive addition. So, if they had a measure (mark one) and they need 20 units of mark one, they’d simply get a long log or rope and measure off 20 mark one’s.

        Anyway google the history of metals for more.

        • The quarried the stone they used to build the pyramids using copper tools.

          They did not use the wheel, probably because they had not developed a sturdy axle that would permit the wheels to turn independently from each other.

          They copied the technology from the Hyksos to build long bows and horse drawn chariots to use as a moving platform from which to launch arrows around 800 years later in 1600 BC.

  18. cielo62 says:

    >^..^< and where I was a Goddess!

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